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DAMASCUS UNIVERSITY 

FACULTY OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES 

DEPARTMENT OF ARABIC LANGUAGE 



LANGUAGE EFFORTS IN MODERN 
SCIENTIFIC TERMS 



THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



BY 
MOHAMMAD ALI AL-ZOURQAN 



SUPERVISED BY 
PROF. DR. SHAKER AL-FAHHAM 

1314 II. / 1993 ,A.D. 
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Section Three is given to review the efforts of some organi- 
zations in unifying their terminology. A hint is made to RAP 

project for translating telecommunication terminology. Another 

•/ 

hint is made to achievements of the Arabic Organization for 
Standards and Specifications and the National Institute for 
Specifications and Manufacturing Ownership in Tunisia and BASM 
Saudi Automatic Bank. 

Section Four Is devoted to define terminology and its origin 
and growth and its presence in cuuricula of some univercities. 
A reference is made to experience of Bourgeba Institute in teaching 
terminology, the interest in this science shown by the National 
Institute for Standards and Specifications in Tunisia and its 
call to teach this science in the Arab universities. 

Finally, the dissertation is concluded with the most important 
results of this research. 



by 
Dr. M. All Al- Zourgan 



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organizations for the sake of coordinating and unifying 
Arabic terminology to be adopted in the Arab World. A reference 
is made to the necessity of teaching terminology as a science 
in the Arabic higher institutes and universities. The chapter 
is divided into an introduction and four sections. 

Section One id designed to show the efforts of the Arabic- 
Language Academies Union with a brief idea about the Union's 
fbrmation followed by a reference to the recommendations given 
by the Scientific Terminology Committee emanated from the Union's 
first conference. Tho symposia held by the Union aro also studied 
in this section. 

Section Two is devoted to the study of efforts of the 
Arabization Coordination Office in Rabat and its methodology in 
unifying terminology and its dictionary-malting projects, A brief 
idea about formation of the Office and the need which led to its 
creation are given too. Tho concept of cooperation in the Office 
and the way the scientific dictionary projects are made as well 
as the means adopted in realizing these projects are all given 
a considerable care. This section also handles the Office's call 
for establishing a central torminology bank, and also to study 
the results and recommendations of the Arabizatiori confernces 
with a reference to scientific terminology composition metho- 
dologies unification symposium* Tho role played b(t Al-Lisan 
Al-Arabi magazine in circulating terminology is also studied in 
this section along with a review of some dictionaries published 
by the Office in association with other Arabic organisations. 
A reference 1b also made to patterns of discrepancy seen in 
coining terminology in some unified scietific: dictionaries 
which the Arabic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization 
participated in composing. 

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Section Two is devoted to review the efforts of other boards 
and organizations in the same field. First comes a reference to 
the works of the Syrian Ministry of Defe ce which authored the 
Military Dictionary and "Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic 
Terms. Then there is a reference to the efforts of- the Arab 
Armies Committee on the unification of Military terminology in 
compiling The Unifying Military Dictionary. There is also another 
reference to the efforts of the Egyptian Army in compiling 
The Dictionary of Technical Terms (English - Arabic) and to the 
collective efforts of the Arab Physicians Union, the Arab Ministers 
of Health and the Arab Educational Scientific and Cultural Orga- 
nization in compiling The Unified Medical Dictionary* Finally a 
reference is made to the efforts of the Arab Engineers Union in 
compiling a comprehensive dictionary for technical, engineering 
and scientific terms • A commentary, a conclusion and an appraisal 
are provided at the end of this section. 

Section Three is devoted to the efforts exerted by some fifteen 
personalities whose achievements had left a remarkable stamp 
over the course of compiling specialized dictionaries from the 
nd of WWI till about the end of this century. Among those 
ersonalities are Dr Amin Al-Ma'loufj Father Anstance, Mary Al- 
armaly, Mohammed Sharaf , Mustafa Al-Shihabi and others. This sectiot 
s closed with a comparison of three modern medical dictionaries 
rith the hope of clarifying the shift from Arabization or borrowing 
into the use of Arabic lexicon that denotes a scientific concept* 
Added to this comparison are a number of remarks Regarding the 
evaluation of the efforts exterted by the personalities studied. 
Chapter Four ; 

This chapter. 1b given the' title " Ways to Beach a Unified 
Arabic. Scientific. Terminology" and it is therefore devoted to 

study the efforts exerted by Arab boards) establishments and 

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of scientific terminology. Finally it made a reference to a 
number of groups of scientific torms in a variety of fields 
formed and acknowledged by the Academy. 

Section Four is devoted to the works of the Arabic Language 
Academy in Jordan and its objectives as well as the means to 
reach those.' objectives and the methodology applied for the same 
purpose* Also included are the efforts in translating into Arabic 
a considerable number of technical terms in various scientific 
subjects taught in the Jordanian universities and the methodology 
followed in the process of translating into Arabib and the 
Academes use of computer in recording the terms translated 
into Arabic and approved of. 
Chapter Three ; 

This chapter is devoted to the efforts exerted by some 
institutions other than academies in composing terminology 
and compiling specialized scientific dictionaries. Those are 
studied in the period between the end of WWI and the late «■ 
twentieth century. It is divided into an introduction and three 
sections. - 

Section One is given to reflect the efforts of the Syrian 
University, ite. University of Damascus, exerted in composing, 
generating technical terms and compiling specialized lexicons 
to highlight the achievements of the university staff in the 
art of writing scientific books , their terminology and 
methodology. A reference is made to the diificulties they faced 
and their attempts to overcome them. Also referred here are the 
achievements of The Arabic Medical Institute magazine in the 
Bame field and efforts of the university staff in classifying 
scientific dictionaries suclr. as Dictionnair Polyglotte de Termen 
Medicaux by Dr A.L. Clairille. 

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Chapter Two ; 

This chapter is devoted to investigate the efforts exerted 
by the four Arabic Language academies and their methodology in 
the field. Each of the' four academies is given a separate 
section. 

Section One is devoted to the works done in the Arabic 
Language Academy in Damascus (ex- Arabic. :Scientific Academy) 
since it started forming administrative and other terms in 
its early stages. The Academy's magazine and its role in formation 
and generating now scientific terms are also discussed. 

Section Two handles activities of the Arabic Language 
Academy in Cairo and the efforts of composing and unifying 
scientific terms among the Arab states. It starts with a brief 
idea about the history of early attempts to establish scientific 
bodies in the form of academies; and about the present academy 
and the stages it went through. Also studied here are the 
Academyi-s methodology in approving of the terms and their formation 
n addition to some of the Academy's acts regarding the standards 
pplied in the language as well as the Academy's actB regarding 
ranslation into Arabic and translation in general* and finally 
.he recommendations concerning composition of terms with some 
llustrativo examples. 

Section Three is arranged to study the exerted efforts at 
Iraq Scientific Academy and its function in general framework' 
of the BUbjDct in question. First on the list are the first 
attempts to create the Academy and the principles adopted by 
the previous academy to formulate and generate scientific 
terminology. Then it proceeded to study the works of- the new 
academy and its methodology in the composition and acknowledgement 

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As far as methodology is concerned, the dissertation is divided 
into four chapters and a conclusion. 
Chapter One ' : 

It is devoted to explore the conditions of scientific 
terminology in the Arab Orient within the Arabic Konaissance. 
Ag has been montionod, il is planned to encompass the first 
historical period. 

This chapter is dovided into three sections. Section Ono is 
made to discuss scientific terminology and passing modern 
sciences on to Egypt together with the method of this passing on. 
It is also given to reflect the efforts of the Egyptian and 
foreign scholars in passing modern sciences and composing their 
terminol'gy in the Egyptian Medical School. 

Also included are the efforts of translators (other than 
physicians or scholars) and oditorc in tho samo area witli a 
reference to the difficulties they face and Lho attempts , to . 
overcome them. 

Section Two is given to investigate ih the same area in 
Great Syria with a reference to the efforts of Syrian Evangelical 
College staff as well as the efforts of other writers and 
translators. 

Section Three deals with the samo subject among Great Syria, 
Egypt and Iraq referring to the of forts of Dr Ya'koup Sarrouf 
and "Al-Mouktataf" magazine. Finally, a reference is made to 
the efforts exerted in Iraq which were of a limited scope of 
the area under investigation t 



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Ho doubt this is an approximato division nob an absolute 
one, for it is difficult to reach a clear cub division that 
separates between two intimately connected and overlapping 
periods. Moreover, even a single period cannot be oasily embraced' 
by a single title that applies to all its aspects since partial 
differences are unavoidable let alone the Substantial ones. 
Therefore, it is imposiible for one poriod lo continue for 
almost a century in the Game tone without any change or development 
in its pitch especially if that period was like the one after 
World War II which had revolutionized the scientific beliefs. 
Such an unexpected scientific revolution lead scientists and 
linguists to undertake the responsibility of composing and 
generating fresh terminology and revising the archaic. Therefore, 
the nature of this research requires such an approximato historical 
division since the works done wore inseparable from those two 
periods especially of the scientists and scholars who witnessed 
the end of World War I and the beginning of World War H. 

In the second historical period the Arab Orient formed 
an integrated unity in so far as the efforts in composing modern 
scientific terminology are concerned. Cooperation took place 
between individuals on ono hand and scientific establishment on the 
other in Egypt, Great Syria and Iraq. 

The first period started around the early nineteenth century 
and ended with the end of WWI. To this period , which is called 
the Arabic Renaissance, the first chapter of this dissartabion 
is devoted. Whereas the second period) which starts with the end 
of WWI and extends, to the present day is called the modern agej 
have the remaining throe chapters boon assigned as shall be 
explained * 

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Languago E fforts in Modern scientific Terms 

Thia research dealn rith the exerted efforts in composing 
scientific terminology' and .in classification of scientific 

i 

dictionaries which appeared in the Arabic Renaissance i.e. from 
the early nineteenth century towards the, late twentieth. The 
research is limited to deal wilhonly the terminology of applied 
sciences apart from that of humanities or terminology of culture 
which havo no consideration hore except those which had incidentally 
appeared within a certain context in the work of some scholar. 

It is expected by this research to accomplish one major 
objectivo which is to reach an approved methodology for composing 
scientific terminology in Arabic characterised by being definite 
and explicit. Two subordinate objectives are also expected: 

1. to defend Arabic against tho charge of being incomplete 
and deficient, as some peoplo charge it with; and to restore 
to tho Arabic speaking masses their sense of self confidence 
which they were destined to lose through plots against them 
long time ago 4 

2* to participate in malting the scientific language in some 
of its general aspects available for the majority of the Arabs 
not confined to a minority who master a foreign language. 

Method and Plan 

It has been suggested to divide tho search subject into 
two major historical periods of which the line demarcation is 
the end of World War One, as it was an important point in the 
history of Arab Orient separating between the Ottoman period 
and the age of indopendance. 

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